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AHA Alpha Hydroxyl Acid

Acronym for Alpha Hydroxy Acid. AHAs are derived from various plant sources or from milk, however 99% of the AHAs included in cosmetics are synthetic. In low concentrations (less than 3%) AHAs works as water-binding agents. At concentrations over 4% and in a base with an acid pH of 3 to 4, these can exfoliate skin cells by breaking down the substance within the skin that holds skin cells together.

AHAs are widely used for therapy of photodamaged skin and has also been reported to normalise hyperkeratinization (over-thickened skin) and increase viable epidermal thickness and dermal glycosaminoglycans content. AHAs exfoliate sun-damaged skin (from the surface of the skin). Furthermore, AHAs make the skin youthful, smooth and satiny. Lines and wrinkles are softened whilst pigmentation spots become lightened. All topical compounds including AHAs must penetrate into the skin where they can act on living cells. Bioavailability (influenced primarily by small molecular size) is one characteristic that is important in determining the compound’s ability to penetrate the top skin layer. Glycolic Acid has the smallest molecular size and works as the AHA with greatest bioavailability and penetrates the skin most easily; this largely accounts for the popularity of this product in cosmetic applications.

Dermal effects: AHAs with greater bioavailability appear to have deeper dermal effects. Glycolic acid, lactic acid and citric acid have been shown to produce increased amounts of mucopolysaccharides and collagen as well as enhancing skin thickness without detectable inflammation when applied in a topical formation to photodamaged skin.


Allantoin is present in botanical extracts of the Comfrey Plant. Chemically synthesized bulk allantoin is nature-identical, safe, non-toxic, and compatible with cosmetic raw materials and meets CTFA and JSCI requirements. Manufacturers cite several beneficial effects for allantoin as an active ingredient in over-the-counter cosmetics; moisturising and keratolytic effects, increasing the water content of the extracellular matrix and enhancing the desquamation of upper layers of dead skin cells, increasing the smoothness of the skin, promotion of cell proliferation and wound healing, also soothing, anti-irritance, and skin protecting effects by forming complexes with irritant and sensitising agents. It is frequently present in toothpaste, mouthwash, and other oral hygiene products, as well as shampoos, lipsticks, anti-acne products, sun care products, clarifying lotions, various cosmetic lotions, creams and other cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

Almond Oil

Almonds are a rich source of Vitamin E, containing 24 mg per 100 g. Almond oil is a great moisturiser and is suitable for all skin types. It helps relieve irritation, inflammation and itching, and has great lubricanting properties because it is a slow penetrating oil. Not only does almond oil help protect the surface of the skin, it also has great value to act as an emollient, skin soother and softener while conditioning the skin and promoting a clear youthful complexion. It also assists in relieving muscular aches and pains. It has a rich concentration of oleic and linoleic essential fatty acids. Sweet almond oil is one of the most popular carrier oils since it is non-greasy, spreads easily and is great for nourishing the skin.


Aloe Vera leaves contain a gel-like substance. This gel has a vast range of Vitamins (such as Vitamin E – which is very important for skin), Minerals, Amino Acids and Enzymes. Aloe Vera is a similar match to our skin’s pH balance. It is therefore able to moisturise and heal the skin quickly. Aloe Vera enhances the activity of Fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are special cells found in the skin that create Fibers such as Collagen and Elastin. These Fibers give skin it’s structure and make it look fleshy and supple.


Alpha Tocopherol

A substance that is obtained from wheat germ oil or by synthesis. It biologically exhibits the most Vitamin E activity of the tocopherols and also works as an antioxidant. The benefits of alpha tocopherol for skin heealth is well proven. Due to its antioxidant activity, alpha tocopherol helps combat the damaging effects of free radicals on your skin. These come from various sources including pollution, UV radiation, poor nutrition, and as a result of ageing.

Alpha tocopherol has been shown in many scientific studies to play a vital role in reversing the effects of skin ageing. It reduces the appearance of fine lines, wrinkles and also helps prevent the appearance of age spots. Alpha tocopherol has also been shown to significantly reduce the appearance of stretch marks on the skin and it can even help scars to diminish.



Ammonium Laureth Sulfate

Ammonium Laureth Sulfate is a detergent and surfactant found in many personal care products (soaps, shampoos, toothpaste etc). It is an inexpensive and very effective foaming agent.



Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate

Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate (ALS) is the common name for ammonium dodecyl sulfate (also known as ALS). It is classified as an alkyl sulfate and is a anionic surfactant found primarily in shampoos and body wash as it works as a foaming agent. Lauryl sulfates are high-foam surfactants that disrupt the surface tension of water by forming micelles around the polar water molecules. Ammonium lauryl sulfate, like any other surfactant, makes a good base for cleansers because of the way it disrupts the hydrogen bonding in water. Hydrogen bonding is the primary contributor to the high surface tension of water. The overall effect of having these micelles in an aqueous (water) environment is that the water’s ability to penetrate things like cloth fibers or hair is exceptionally high.



Arbutin is both an ether and a glycoside. It is a glycosylated benzoquinone, extracted from bearberry plant in the genus Arctostaphylos. It inhibits tyrosinase and prevents the formation of melanin because of it’s hydroquinone content, it can have melanin-inhibiting properties. This means arbutin has a positive effect with lightening the skin and is therefore used as a skin lightening agent.



Argan oil is a highly effective organic oil which is frequently used in anti-wrinkle and facial care cosmetics. It has a high level of tocopherols (Vitamin E) and antioxidants that can reduce the damage of harmful free radicals and reduce the progress of skin ageing. Aside from these natural properties, the saponins found in Argan oil help moisturise dry and blemished skin, this leads to youthful and healthier skin. The natural properties of Argan oil that protect skin, hair and nails are extraordinary indeed. When used regularly, it can heal damaged tissues and diminish scars. It can add an additional layer of skin, which helps to protect it from harmful sun rays as well as a disinfectant layer that will keep pollution, toxins and microorganisms out.



The most commonly used chemical in sunscreen today. It offers broad-range UVA protection and helps to protect skin against the harmful effects of the sun.




Avocado oil is an edible oil that is pressed from the Persea Americana (avocado) fruit. It is known to be one of the healthiest edible oils. It is also used for lubrication and in cosmetics where it is valued for its regenerative and moisturising properties. It is a rich heavy oil that deeply penetrates and is rich in Vitamins A and D, lecithin, potassium as well as Vitamin E. Crude Avocado oil is green in colour as it still contains chlorophyll and it is classified as a mono-unsaturated oil. It is often used for dry or mature skin, or for people suffering from eczema or psoriasis. This oil is very useful when treating sun or climate damaged skin that is dehydrated and undernourished as it is said to help with regenerating the skin and softening the tissue.



Bisabol (known formally as αlpha bisabolol and sometimes as levomenol), is a natural monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol. It is a colourless viscous oil that is primarily a constituent of the essential oil from German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Myoporum grassifolium. It is almost insoluble in water and glycerin, however soluble in ethanol. The enantiomer, αlpha bisabolol, is also found naturally but is rare. Synthetic bisabolol is usually a racemic mixture of the two, αlpha bisabolol.

Bisabolol has a weak sweet floral aroma and is used in various fragrances. It has also been used for hundreds of years in cosmetics because of its perceived skin healing properties. Bisabolol is known to have anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.

Bisoctrizole (Tinosorb M)

Is a hybrid type sun blocking agent that acts as both a chemical and as a physical sunscreen. It covers both UVA and UVB range. Furthermore, it does not degrade under sunlight and is not significantly absorbed into the skin. It is extremely compatible with many other common sun blocking agents.


Extracts from borage plant seeds contain a natural source of gamma-Linolenic Acid (GLA). This is an important OMEGA-6 fatty acid which is required for healthy skin cell membranes. Without sufficient GLA, cells can’t retain enough moisture. This can result in dry skin and other chronic skin problems. Borage oil penetrates deep, delivering GLA and its benefits directly to the cells. As a result, skin retains more moisture and is healthier.

Calendula Officinalis

Calendula officinalis is used for the treatment of skin disorders and pain, and as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. The petals and pollen contain triterpenoid esters (an anti-inflammatory) and the carotenoids flavoxanthin and auroxanthin (antioxidants, and the source of the yellow-orange coloration). The leaves and stems contain other carotenoids, mostly lutein (80%) and zeaxanthin (5%), and beta-carotene.

Plant extracts are also widely used in cosmetics, presumably due to presence of compounds such as saponins, resins and essential oils. Calendula has great anti-inflammatory properties and vulnerary properties, making it excellent for help with stubborn wounds, ulcers, bed sores, varicose veins, bruises, rashes, eczema etc.

Calendula Oil

Calendula Oil is not only one of the most effective topical oils, it also makes an excellent base for salves, facial creams and many other natural cosmetics. It is gentle, cooling, and soothing. Calendula oil is the most successful oil for assisting with dry and damaged skin, skin inflammations, rashes and other skin disorders. This oil is exceptional potent against wrinkles caused by ageing and pregnancy. This ingredient is also used in a variety of health care products for children.

Chamomilla Recutita

German chamomile is used medicinally against sore stomachs, irritable bowel syndrome and as a gentle sleep aid. It has acaricidal properties against certain mites, such as Psoroptes cuniculi. The primary active ingredient of the essential oil from German chamomile is the terpene bisabolol. Other active ingredients include chamazulene, flavonoids (including apigenin, quercetin, patuletin and luteolin) and coumarin.

Research suggests this oil is antispasmodic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and contains antimutagenic and cholesterol-lowering effects for chamomile. Invitro chamomile has demonstrated moderate antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and a significant antiplatelet activity, as well as preliminary results against cancer. Chamomile’s essential oils have shown to be a promising antiviral agent against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro.

The therapeutic properties of chamomile oil are analgesic, anti-spasmodic, antiseptic, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-infectious, anti-depressant, anti-neuralgic, antiphlogistic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, bactericidal, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, emmenagogue, febrifuge, hepatic, sedative, nervine, sudorific, stomachic, vermifuge and vulnerary.

Cocamide Mono Ethanol Amine

Cocamide MEA is derived from fatty acids, coconut oil and monoethanolamine (MEA). Cocamide MEA is normally used in cosmetics and personal care products, such as the formulation of bath soaps and shampoos. Cocamide MEA increases foaming capacity and/or stabilizes foam. Cocamide MEA is also used to thicken the (water) portion of cosmetic and personal care products.

Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (also known as ubiquinone) is a vitamin-like substance that is present in all human cells and is responsible for cell protection and the body’s production of energy. Studies have shown that coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) may have beneficial effects on the skin and the appearance of wrinkles. The latest research suggests that topical application of CoQ10 has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. As such, it is one of the many helpful antioxidants for the skin. Coenzyme Q10 is naturally found in the human body and works to combat the damage caused by harmful free radicals. This makes it an excellent natural skin care element as those organs with the highest energy requirements such as the heart and the liver, have the highest CoQ10 concentrations. As we age, the amount of coenzyme q10 in our body decreases, lowering the element’s affect and ability to work as a natural anti ageing skin care treatment.

Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Lemongrass) Extract

Naturally toning, stimulating and refreshing. Brightens tired, dull skin and energises tired muscles. It is an antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and romatherapeutic agent.



D- Panthenol is the alcohol analog of pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) and is the provitamin of B5. Panthenol comes in two enantiomers, D and L. Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active, however both forms have moisturising properties. In cosmetics, panthenol is a humectant, emollient and moisturiser. It readily binds to the hair shaft and is a frequent component of shampoos and hair conditioners. It coats the hair and seals its surface lubricating the hair shaft and making strands appear shiny.



Panthenol comes in two enantiomers, D and L. Only D-panthenol (dexpanthenol) is biologically active, however both forms have moisturizing properties. Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fatty acids, proteins, gluconeogenesis, sterols, steroid hormones, and porphyrins.

The topical use of dexpanthenol, the stable alcoholic analog of pantothenic acid, is based on good skin penetration and high local concentrations of dexpanthenol when administered in an adequate vehicle, such as water-in-oil emulsions. Topical dexpanthenol acts like a moisturizer, improving stratum corneum hydration, reducing transepidermal water loss and maintaining skin softness and elasticity.

Activation of fibroblast proliferation, which is of relevance in wound healing, has been observed both in vitro and in vivo with dexpanthenol. Accelerated re-epithelization in wound healing, monitored by means of the transepidermal water loss as an indicator of the intact epidermal barrier function, has also been seen. Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema.

Beneficial effects of dexpanthenol have been observed in patients who have undergone skin transplantation or scar treatment, or therapy for burn injuries and different dermatoses. The stimulation of epithelization, granulation and mitigation of itching were the most prominent effects of formulations containing dexpanthenol. In an irritation model, pretreatment with dexpanthenol cream resulted in significantly less damage to the stratum corneum barrier, compared with no pretreatment. Adjuvant skin care with dexpanthenol considerably improved the symptoms of skin irritation, such as dryness of the skin, roughness, scaling, pruritus, erythema, erosion/fissures, over 3 to 4 weeks.


Disodium Capryloyl Glutamate

The use of Disodium capryloyl glutamate type surfactants cleans’ skin and hair while also respecting their structure, their constitutive elements, their resident micro-organisms and pH. These types of surfactants are mild, natural, biodegradable and non-mutagenic. Their use can help the formulator to obtain a balance of properties and functionality: optimum foam, softness, care and protection for normal and damaged skin or hair, mildness to eyes and mucous membranes, conditioning, deodorant effect, and so on. The surface activity of these molecules, combined with their functional properties, provides numerous opportunities for the development of effective and innovative products for skin and hair care applications.

Equisetum Arvense

Equisetum arvense, commonly known as the Field Horsetail or Common Horsetail, is a rather bushy perennial with a rhizomatous stem formation which is native to the northern hemisphere. The plant contains several chemicals which can be used medicinally. It is rich in minerals such as silicon (10%), as well as potassium and calcium, which gives it diuretic properties. It is prescribed to care for conjunctive tissues (cartilage, tendons and bones) and also polyps, epistasis, and bleeding. The buds are eaten as a vegetable in Japan during Spring.

Evening Primrose

Evening primrose oil is the oil extracted from the evening primrose plant seed, it is native to North and South America. In skin care, evening primrose oil is used for skin disorders such as eczema, psoriasis and acne. The application of this oil in skin care helps rejuvenate skin and decrease fine lines and wrinkles. This oil helps the skin to produce new skin cells and improves elasticity by creating firmer skin. It is also used to treat very dry skin and helps lighten dark circles under the eyes. It is used to treat blemished, skin redness and reduce inflammation. It is also an excellent anti-ageing agent.

Faex Extract

Is an active ingredient rich in polysaccharides and Vitamin PP (Niacinamide). This is obtained from cultured yeast and has the capacity to combat dark circles. It also eases blood circulation in the area of skin around the eye, cuts vascular congestion and reduces the appearance of dark circles and bags. It makes the area around the eyes look rested and promotes a more uniform complexion.

Ficus Carica

The extracts of ficus carica contain high density pure sapoonins, this acts as an anti-oxidant and skin softener. Also the caper germ extract contains active soothing factors, reduces skin irritation, is anti-sensitive and a high moisture factor that leaves the skin supple and soft.

Foeniculum Vulgare

Foeniculum Vulgare or fennel oil has exceptional antioxidant properties. Fennel contains anethole, which can explain some of its medical effects. There are historical anecdotes that suggest fennel is a galactogogue, improving the milk supply of a breastfeeding mother. This use, although not supported by direct evidence, is sometimes justified by the fact that fennel is a source of phytoestrogens, which promote breast tissue growth. The oil extracts from this ingredient have an Estrogenic effect which blocks the activities of Alpha-5 – reductase enzymes in the hair follicles, consequently halting the production of Hydroxy testosterone, which is the main cause of hair loss in men.

Glucamate™ DOE-120

Glucamate™ DOE-120 thickener is a vegetable-derived highly efficient viscosity builder designed to be used with numerous anionic surfactants (i.e. ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth-2 sulfate, triethanolamine lauryl sulfate, etc.) and amphoteric surfactant systems which are popular in many shampoos, body washes and liquid soaps. With eye irritation test scores of zero, Glucamate DOE-120 thickener is non-irritating to the eyes, making it ideal for baby shampoos. The addition of Glucamate DOE-120 thickener to formulas can significantly reduce the eye irritation normally associated with harsh surfactants. Formulators count on Glucamate DOE-120 thickener to create products that are easy to pour and have aesthetically pleasing foaming properties without the worry of changing foam characteristics.


This is a chemical compound which is also known as glycerin. It is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid that is widely used in pharmaceutical formulations. Glycerol is used in medical, pharmaceutical and personal care preparations, mainly as a means of improving smoothness, providing lubrication and as a humectant.

Grape Seed Oil

Grape seed oil is a preferred cosmetic ingredient for damaged and stressed tissues because it contains regenerative and restructuring qualities which controls skin moisturisation. It can help skin retain the normal structure of epithelium cells and nerve cells via supporting the cell membranes. It is noted to be especially effective in repairing the skin around the eyes. Used as an all-over skin moisturiser, grape seed oil is known to reduce the look of stretch marks. Light and thin, grape seed oil leaves a glossy film over the skin when used as carrier oil for essential oils in aromatherapy. It contains more linoleic acid than many other carrier oils. Grape seed oil is also used as a lubricant for face shaving. Several other studies have shown that grape seed oil is effective in destroying cancer cells.

Grape seeds contain several antioxidants, including polyphenols and proanthocyanidins, which show some health benefits. In particular, sufficiently high amounts of resveratrol occurs so that it can be extracted commercially. Despite this, these antioxidants are not likely to be present in significant amounts of cold-pressed grape seed oil itself, since proanthocyanidins are polar molecules and therefore insoluble in lipids. Antioxidants from grape skins and seeds are more concentrated in products such as grape juice and red wine.


Grapefruit is an excellent source of several nutrients and phytochemicals whilst also contributing to a healthy diet. Grapefruit is a good source of Vitamin C, pectin fiber, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene. Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol and there is evidence that the seeds have high levels of antioxidant properties. Grapefruit forms a core part of the “grapefruit diet”, the theory being that the fruit’s low glycemic index is able to help the body’s metabolism burn fat. Grapefruit seed extract has been claimed to have strong antimicrobial properties, with proven activity against bacteria and fungi.

Helianthus Annuus Seed Oil

Sunflower oil predominantly contains linoleic acid in triglyceride form.  There are several types of sunflower oil, such as high linoleic, high oleic and mid oleic. High linoleic sunflower oil typically has at least 69% linoleic acid. High oleic sunflower oil has at least 82% oleic acid.

Sunflower oil also contains lecithin, tocopherols, carotenoids and waxes. Sunflower oil is produced from oil type sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is light in taste and appearance and has a high Vitamin A and E content. Its properties assist in protecting the skin from UV rays. Its Vitamin A and E contents have antioxidant properties, also beneficial for protecting the skin from wrinkles and ageing.

It is an extremely safe ingredient that is frequently used in children health care products too. This oil helps the skin regenerate at a faster rate giving the skin a moisturising effect.

Hydrolyzed Milk Protein

This nourishing element also maintains moisture in the skin for long periods of time.

Hydrolyzed Wheat Germ Protein

Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein are naturally derived. Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein contains wheat oligosaccharides (carbohydrates) and constitutes a unique hydrating complex offering a combination of moisture-balancing and film-forming properties that work synergistically to give hair better body control and skin, a smoother softer feel. It is an exceptional ingredient to add moisturisation to lotions, creams and facial serums, it is also an excellent addition to shampoos, conditioners and body washes. It acts as a film-former and skin conditioning agent due to Triethanolamine - which is a pH adjuster. When used in conjunction with Carbomer it increases the viscosity.

Hypericum perforatum

An effective ingredient for use in lotions or balms to treat dry, aged and acne-prone skin. Not only can Hypericum perforatum treat these skin conditions, but it will also help to protect from future damage. it’s antiseptic, antiviral and astringent properties helps heal, sooth and protect the skin. It is also highly effective in relieving pain. This oil effectively soothes and helps heal skin damaged by sunburn as well as rashes, or other minor skin irritants.

Jojoba Oil

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), pronounced ““hō-hō’-bə”“, is a shrub native to the Sonoran and Mojave deserts of Arizona, California, and Mexico. It is the sole species of the family Simmondsiaceae. It is also known as goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffee berry and gray box bush. Since it is composed of wax esters, it is an extremely stable substance and does not easily deteriorate and the structure closely resembles that of our own skin sebum, making it an excellent moisturiser and ideal for all skin types. It is a good nourishing ingredient for hair care. It contains myristic acid which also has anti-inflammatory actions and since it has a similar composition to the skin’s own oils, it is quickly absorbed and is excellent for dry and mature skins as well as inflamed conditions. It can be used on acne without causing any problems as it helps to control acne, it is also an antioxidant.

Kiwi Extract

Kiwis contain large amounts of the water-soluble vitamin C, which is needed to produce collagen. Collagen is a connective protein that helps to firm the skin. The production of collagen decreases with ageing, causing skin to lose elasticity. Collagen-stimulating ingredients, like kiwi extract may be added to skin care products to slow the appearance of ageing.


Lanacityn is developed by micro-organisms and plants living in hostile conditions (Alteromonas Ferment Extract and Chysanthellum Indicum Extract). Lanacityn reinforces the skin’s natural defense system against pollution damage and improves the overall skin complexion. Also by protecting cutaneous cells from damage caused by smoking, Lanacityn acts as a strong antipollution active ingredient and entails excellent visible effects on the skin.

Larrea Divaricate Extract

Exhibits healing properties useful in first-aid products and blemish prone skin. Historically used as an antioxidant, pain-killer and antiseptic.

Lavandula Angustifolia

In addition to its use as an ornamental plant, the flowers and leaves are also used as an herbal medicine, either in the form of lavender oil or as a herbal tea. The therapeutic properties of lavender oil are antiseptic, analgesic, anti-convulsant, anti-depressant, anti-rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, bactericide, carminative, cholagogue, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, decongestant, deodorant, diuretic, emmenagogue, hypotensive, nervine, rubefacient, sedative, sudorific and vulnerary.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Glycyrrhiza glabra (from the greek γλυκύρριζα or γλυκόριζα meaning “sweet root”), in which a sweet flavour can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a legume (related to beans and peas), native to southern Europe and parts of Asia.  Licorice Extract has anti-inflammatory properties. This element is an inhibitor of Tyrosine’s enzyme which prevents the darkening of the skin due to UV rays.

Marine Biopolymers

Marine derived ingredients such as seaweed, algae and sea salts often have excellent anti-irritant, antioxidant, moisturising and anti-ageing properties. This makes them integral components of products for the fast-growing cosmetic industry. Seaweeds are extremely hardy, adapting to changes in temperature and intense exposure to UV radiation. As a result, they thrive even as they are immersed in water and exposed to air. Seaweed extracts are loaded with amino acids, such as alanine, glycine and proline, to stimulate collagen synthesis as well as inhibiting enzymes that destroy collagen and elastin. With regular use, it reportedly improves the skin barrier and slows the ageing process.

Biopolymers have a predominant amount of iodine, protein and mineral, all of which are good for the skin. Laminaria or green algae is especially rich in iodine and reportedly stimulates cell oxygen content. Fucus or brown algae is rich in antioxidants and has a detoxifying benefit to the body. Spirulina is a single-cell algae that is loaded with protein and antioxidants. Rich in calcium and magnesium, white algae is an anti-inflammatory and boosts blood circulation.

MDI Complex

MDI Complex® is an active cosmetic ingredient that inhibits collagen destruction by matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes. With ageing, often stressful lifestyles and exposure to harmful environmental irritants increases the activity of these enzymes, affecting the extracellular matrix. MDI Complex® is recommended for the prevention of dark circles under and around the eyes, stellate veins, rosacea and varicose veins. With daily environmental stress and UVA/UVB exposure, the activity of MMP enzymes increases, affecting the health of our extracellular matrix. It is very important to preserve this matrix while maintaining a solid equilibrium between the number of enzymes and their inhibitors. MDI Complex is also clinically effective to reduce the appearance of facial spider veins and protect against induced skin irritation. Other benefits include reducing the dark circles around the eyes.

Mentha Piperita

Peppermint oil is non-toxic and non-irritant in low dilutions but sensitisation may be a problem due to the menthol content. The therapeutic properties of peppermint oil are analgesic, anesthetic, antiseptic, antigalactagogue, antiphlogistic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, cephalic, cholagogue, cordial, decongestant, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hepatic, nervine, stimulant, sudorific, vasoconstrictor and vermifuge.

Peppermint oil is excellent for mental fatigue and depression, refreshing the spirit and stimulating mental agility and improving concentration. It helps for apathy, shock, headache, migraine, nervous stress, vertigo and faintness and in general respiratory disorders, as well as dry coughs, sinus congestion, asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis and cholera. When applied to the skin, peppermint oil is used to relieve irritation and itchiness and also helps to reduce skin redness, where inflammation is present. It is used for dermatitis, acne, ringworm, scabies and pruritus and also relieves itching, sunburn and inflammation of the skin, while at the same time having a cooling action.

Methyl Gluceth-20

Methyl Gluceth-20 is the scientific name for a substance that is derived from glucose (specifically corn sugar) and methyl alcohol. It is a humectant (aids in moisture retention) and an emollient (skin softener). It is safe and mild and is used in skin products as a conditioner.


Mika is a natural silicate mineral which is highly effective in cosmetics such as eye care products. Mika is iridescent and reflective, imparting shimmer to product appearance. Mika significantly helps to reduce wrinkles.


Niacin (also known as Vitamin B3 or Nicotinic Acid), is a water-soluble vitamin that prevents the deficiency disease pellagra. It is an organic compound containing the molecular formula C6H5NO2. The terms niacin, nicotinamide and Vitamin B3 are often used interchangeably to refer to any one of this family of molecules, since they have a common biochemical activity. Topical application of niacinamide has been shown to increase ceramide and free fatty acid levels in the skin, whilst also preventing skin from losing water content and stimulate microcirculation in the dermis. Studies show that 2% niacinamide was more effective than petrolatum (Vaseline) at reducing water loss from skin and increasing its hydration levels. Also niacinamide is a helpful ingredient for addressing skin discolouration. It appears that niacinamide has an inhibitory effect on the transfer of melanosomes to skin cells, thus it interrupts the process that causes irregular pigmentation to form.


Natural moisturising factor (NMF) is one of the primary elements in keeping skin healthy. It ensures the structure of the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is intact. The components that do this are often called natural moisturising factor (NMF) or ingredients that mimic the structure and function of healthy skin. While the oil and fat components of skin prevent evaporation and provide lubrication to the surface of skin, it is actually the intercellular matrix, along with the skin’s lipid content, that gives skin a good deal of its surface texture and feel.

The intercellular matrix is the skin’s first line of defense against water loss. When the lipid and NMF content of skin is reduced, we experience surface roughness, flaking, fine lines, and a tight, uncomfortable feeling. The longer the skin’s surface layer is impaired, the less effective the skin’s intercellular matrix becomes. Moreover, the skin’s healing process is impaired. NMFs make up an expansive group of ingredients that include amino acids, ceramides, hyaluronic acid, cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycosphingolipids, urea, linoleic acid, glycosaminoglycans, glycerin, mucopolysaccharide, and sodium PCA (Pyrrolidone Carboxylic Acid).

All of the skin’s supporting NMFs and lipids are present in the intercellular structure of the epidermis, both between skin cells and in the lipid content on the surface of skin. When any of these ingredients are included in skin-care products, they appear to help stabilize and maintain this complex intercellular-skin matrix. More important, all of these ingredients, and many more, help support the intercellular area of the skin by keeping it intact. This support helps prevent surface irritation from penetrating deeper into the skin, helps keep bacteria out, and aids the skin’s immune/healing system. Using moisturizers of any kind that contain NMFs allows your skin to do its job of repairing and regenerating itself without the impedances brought on when skin is suffering from dryness, environmental distress, or excess.


Papaya has been used to heal skin ailments such as breakouts, dry skin, cellulite and premature ageing. These healing claims come from the powerful enzyme found in papayas called peptin. Peptin is a digestive enzyme but when applied topically to the skin it helps to smooth and make it healthy and radiant. Other skin nourishing properties include Vitamin A, C, E and carotenoids. These antioxidants also reduce inflammation of the skin.

Polyquarternium 10

Polyquaterniums are commonly found in conditioners, shampoos, mousses, hair sprays and hair dye solutions. They are positively charged and neutralise the negative charges of most shampoos and condition hair proteins that help hair lie flat. Their positive charges also ionically bond them to hair and skin. Some have antimicrobial properties.


Pomegranate is a good source of Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), Vitamin C, potassium and antioxidant polyphenols. The most abundant polyphenols in pomegranate juice are the hydrolyzable tannins called punicalagins which have free-radical scavenging properties. Punicalagins are absorbed into the human body and may have dietary value as antioxidants. The ORAC (antioxidant capacity) of pomegranate juice is considered moderate when compared to other herbs and spices. Many food and dietary supplement makers have found advantages of using pomegranate phenolic extracts as ingredients in their products instead of the juice. One of these extracts is ellagic acid which may become bio-available only after parent molecule punicalagins are metabolised.

Poria Cocos

Poria cocos is a fungus found in the mushroom family (Polyoporaceae). It has a rich history of use in Traditional Chinese medicine where the crude drug is known as Hoelen or Fu-Ling.  The fruiting body (sclerotium) of Poria is folkloricly used for its anti-ageing, diuretic, sedative and tonic effects. Poria is the chief ingredient in about 10% of all Traditional Chinese Medicinal formulations.

Propylene Glycol

Propylene glycol (known also by the systematic name propane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound which is usually a faint yet sweet, colourless clear viscous liquid that is hygroscopic and miscible with water, acetone, and chloroform. It is also used as a moisturiser in medicines, cosmetics, food, toothpaste, mouthwash and other products.

Quinoa Extract

This extract prevents the formation of cellulite. It blocks the intercellular signals and enzymes that control the process by which fat is synthetised, inhibiting the formation of new adipocytes. It also restricts the formation of new blood vessels around adipocytes which suppresses cell growth and forces the adipocytes to stay in their dormant, non-operational, non-fat storing form.

Rice Bran Oil

Rice bran oil contains three healthy antioxidants that are useful in protecting the body’s cells against the effects of free radicals – tocopherol, tocotrienol and oryzanol. Rich in Vitamins B and E, rice bran oil increases skin elasticity and keeps it hydrated and soft. Rice bran oil is unique in that it contains different kinds of Vitamin B and Vitamin E, making it a more complex and wholesome ingredient for your skin. Owing to the presence of Vitamin E and Gamma-oryzanol, it is used for many alternative herbal therapies along with skin care products to prevent ageing. Therefore you can obtain youthful, wrinkle free, glowing skin with the use of this oil. Vitamin E helps skin feel refreshed all the time. Rice bran oil is used in sunscreen as Vitamin E protects skin against harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. The antioxidant property of this oil helps to overcome free radicals which cause damage.

Rosa Canina

Rosehip oil penetrates the skins upper layers very quickly making it a superb moisturiser. It supports the keratin migration cycle that is responsible for the natural regeneration of skin cells. After using Rosehip oil there is an increase of renewed cells in the epidermis. The cells also produce more collagen and elastin, which makes the skin look smoother, firmer and suppler. The natural process of removing old skin and cleaning hair follicles is enhanced, giving a cleaner youthful appearance. Rosehip oil is an excellent natural moisturising oil for everyday skin care. In addition to its healing elements such as sensitive, allergic, sun damaged, hyper pigmented, dry, ageing, or problem skin, it also provides immediate relief for dry skin and eczema.

Rosmarinus Officinalis

Rosemary (also known as Rosmarinus officinalis), has certain therapeutic properties such as regulating blood pressure, revitalising energy, feeling of well-being, stimulating blood circulation, boosting the health of the heart and also works as an antidepressant. Rosemary is extremely high in iron, calcium, and Vitamin B6.

Rosemary contains a number of potentially biologically active compounds, including antioxidants such as carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid. Other bioactive compounds include caffeic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, rosmaridiphenol, and rosmanol. This element is effective against skin tumours, it has a calming effect and makes the skin pores tighter.

Salvia Officinalis

Salvia Officinalis (Sage, Common sage, Garden sage, Kitchen sage, Culinary sage, Dalmatian sage, Purple sage, Broadleaf sage, Red sage) is a small perennial evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, greyish leaves and blue to purplish flowers. The Latin name for sage, salvia, means “to heal”. Although the effectiveness of Common Sage is open to debate, it has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment. Modern evidence supports its effects as an anhidrotic, antibiotic, antifungal, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, hypoglycemic and tonic. In a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial, sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease.

Sambucus Nigra

The use of herbal remedies, including the herb elder (elderflower - also known as common elder), is classified as Sambucus nigra. This ingredient is popular as an alternative to standard Western allopathic medicine for a variety of problems, including herpes simplex (fever blisters), rheumatic problems as well as to soothe the respiratory tract. Sambucus nigra is also effective against  inflammation and stimulate circulation healing. It is an excellent element in overcoming unpleasant odours. Research has also shown that this ingredient assists in healing spots and freckles on the skin.

Saw Palmetto

The fruits of the saw palmetto are highly enriched with fatty acids and phytosterols. These fruit extracts have been the subject of intensive research for the treatment of urinary tract infections. This extract is also commonly used for other medical conditions. Saw palmetto extract has been shown to inhibit both forms of 5-alpha-reductase without eliminating the cellular capacity to secrete prostate specific antigen, as finesteride does. Other proposals for mechanisms of action include interfering with dihydrotestosterone binding to the androgen receptor, relaxing smooth muscle tissue similarly to alpha antagonist drugs and acting as a phytoestrogen. Saw palmetto extract has been suggested as a potential treatment for male pattern baldness.

Sea Salt

Sea Salt releases toxic agents from tissues, improves blood circulation and regulates the pH value of the tissue. Metabolic slag, harmful acids, urea and albumen are discharged naturally, leaving the skin and body free to regenerate. Sea Salt helps to strengthen the resistance of the skin, whilst maintaining the delicate water balance and additionally acts as an antiseptic agent.

Seaplants Complex

This complex is focused on ingredients from the sea. It uses the benefits supplied by a combination of algaes found in the sea such as: Aonori, Dulse, Irish Moss, Ulva and Wakame. These algaes hydrate the skin while improving microcirculation and vitalisation.


Seaweed is packed with vitamins, minerals, trace elements and amino acids that are essential in maintaining healthy and youthful skin. This natural marine wonder helps slow the skin ageing process while protecting it from the harsh environmental elements in the air and water. Essential vitamins include: A1, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, E, K, pantothenic acid, folic acid, and niacin. Seaweed is also rich in antioxidants such as beta-carotene and has over 60 trace elements that include potassium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc and manganese. Seaweed is a major source of B12. Selenium and ascorbic acid protects the skin from damaging free radicals. Organic Iodine found in seaweed increases metabolism. Seaweed also contains fatty acids to combat skin irritation and inflammation.

Shea Butter

Shea butter is especially known for its cosmetic properties as a moisturiser and emollient. Some claim that it is also an anti-inflammatory agent. Shea butter is marketed as being effective at treating the following conditions: fading scars, eczema, burns, rashes, acne, severely dry skin, blemishes, dark spots, skin discolourations, chapped lips, stretch marks, wrinkles and in lessening the irritation of psoriasis. Shea butter provides natural ultraviolet sun protection, although the level of protection is extremely variable, ranging from nothing to approximately SPF 6. Shea butter absorbs rapidly into the skin without leaving a greasy feeling. This is due to its emollient properties which help in relaxing the tension in the face skin thus easing respiration. Shea butter can be found in many high-end moisturising skin products. Shea butter is known for its skin softening effect. It is also used in hair conditioners to add and maintain moisture in dry brittle hair, in addition to retaining softness and preventing breakage.

Siegesbeckia Extract

This extract comes from a shrub found in Asia. It has been used for thousands of years to sooth inflammation and stimulate wound healing. It has been utilized for many years as a way to effectively regenerate damaged tissue by restoring the collagen matrix and promoting natural collagen production. It is also said to be an excellent emollient for skin repair.


Silicones have become an increasingly important part of cosmetic formulations in recent years. They play an important part as texturing agents as well as conditioners and in dermal protection. In this particular instance the ingredients have been developed for hair care products to provide added texture, volume and conditioning properties to hair. This element does not leave oil on the skin however it leaves the skin extremely soft.


Soy is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for the skin.Soy is one of many phyto chemicals that are biologically active against free radicals. Soy extract’s increased use in anti-ageing products is largely due to studies showing that genistein (a component of soy) has a collagen-stimulating effect and that various compounds in soy influence skin thickness and elasticity. Soy milk extract stimulates the production of hyaluronic acid in the skin. This is due to the amount of genistein. Studies have shown that topical application of soy milk has a protective effect against UVB light damage. Soy extract or soy oil has estrogenic effects when applied to skin. Soy can improve hair growth and lighten skin colour when applied topically.


Squalane is an effective emollient, moisturiser and antioxidant. It also protects the skin from harsh environmental effects, helps guard against UV radiation and prevents water loss from the skin.

Stearyl Alcohol

Stearyl alcohol is a fatty alcohol used as an emollient and helps to keep other ingredients intact in a formulation. Stearyl alcohol (also known as octadecyl alcohol or 1-octadecanol) is a substance prepared from stearic acid by the process of catalytic hydrogenation. It has a wide range of uses as an ingredient in lubricants, resins, perfumes and cosmetics. It is used as an emollient, emulsifier, a thickener in ointments of various sorts and is widely used as a hair coating in shampoos and hair conditioners. Stearyl alcohol is even used as a liquid solar blanket in swimming pools by forming a molecule thick layer on the surface of the water and slowing the evaporation rate of the pool water.

Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia)

Natural tea tree oil is a very unique popular organic ingredient that is used in medical and cosmetics products (shampoos, deodorants, lotions, etc). Tea tree oil is good for the skin and many swear by it as the perfect natural solution to help acne, particularly on the face. Natural organic tea tree oil is anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-septic, it includes germicidal properties and is highly effective in treating acne.

Thymus Vulgaris

In medieval times this plant symbolized courage and was used to keep spirit intact. Knights departing on crusades received scarves embroidered with a sprig of thyme from their loved ones. There was popular belief that a leaf tea prevented nightmares, while another held that tea made of thyme and other herbs enabled one to see nymphs and fairies. Herbalists of the Middle Ages regarded thyme as a stimulant, antispasmodic and recommended that sleeping on thyme and inhaling it could be used as a remedy for melancholy and epilepsy.

Urtica Dioica

Urtica dioica (also known as Old English Stiðe or Nettle), is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, which was recorded in the 10th century. Nettle is believed to be a galactagogue and a clinical trial has shown that the juice is diuretic in patients with congestive heart failure. This extract can also be used to treat arthritis, anemia, hay fever, kidney problems and pain. Nettle is used in hair shampoos to control dandruff and is said to make hair glossier. It is also thought nettles can ease eczema. Because it contains 3,4-divanillyltetrahydrofuran, certain extracts of the nettle are used by bodybuilders in an effort to increase free testosterone by occupying sex-hormone binding globulin.

Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a bi-polar molecule formed with bi-polar covalent bonds between carbon and hydrogen. It is linked to a family of similarly shaped molecules, the retinoids which complete the remainder of the vitamin sequence.

All forms of Vitamin A have a beta-ionone ring to which an isoprenoid chain is attached. This structure is essential for vitamin activity. The orange pigment of carrots - beta-carotene - can be represented as two connected retinyl groups, they are used in the body to contribute to Vitamin A levels. The retinyl group, when attached to a specific protein is the only primary light absorber in visual perception and the compound name is related to the eye retina.

Vitamin A can be found in various forms. Retinol, the form of Vitamin A that is absorbed when eating animal food sources, is a yellow, fat-soluble, vitamin which is important in vision and bone growth. Since the alcohol form is unstable, the vitamin is usually produced and administered in a form of retinyl acetate or palmitate.

Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin meaning that it is stored in the body. Vitamin A has been shown to be important for healthy eyes and vision and protects against infection, baldness, acne, cancer, radiation, pollutants and is used in contraceptives. Vitamin A also promotes normal cell growth, healthy skin and hair and assists in protein digestion and maintains healthy blood and glandular function.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin and is part of the vitamin B complex group. Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form and is also a cofactor in many reactions of amino acid metabolism, including transamination, deamination, and decarboxylation. PLP is also necessary for the enzymatic reaction that governs the release of glucose from glycogen. B vitamins are very important for the overall health and growth of hair. Vitamin B3 is the most critical vitamin for hair growth because it is responsible for helping the circulation in the scalp. Vitamin B6 works to help create melanin that is responsible for setting hair colour and also helps to prevent hair loss. Other B vitamins, such as vitamin B12, among others, are also very good for hair loss prevention.

Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid is well known for its antioxidant activity. Ascorbate acts as a reducing agent to reverse oxidation in aqueous solution. When there are more free radicals (Reactive oxygen species) in the body compared to antioxidants, humans are subject to the condition called Oxidative stress. Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has been one of skin-care’s hot sellers for the past several years due to its proven effectiveness as an antioxidant. Antioxidants are a critical natural defence against “free radicals,” unstable molecules that age the skin as a result of pollution, smoking and sun exposure. Topical Vitamin C can protect the skin from UV damage caused by prolonged sun exposure by reducing the amount of free radical formation. Yet another benefit of Vitamin C is its ability to enhance the synthesis of collagen: a critically important skin protein that strengthens structural support and resilience of the skin.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols and the corresponding four tocotrienols which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. Of these, α-tocopherol (also written as alpha-tocopherol) has been studied in-depth as it has the highest bioavailability. It has been claimed that α-tocopherol is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant and that it protects cell membranes from oxidation by reacting with lipid radicals produced in the lipid peroxidation chain reaction. This would remove the free radical intermediates and prevent the oxidation reaction from continuing, also assisting in protecting the skin from UV rays. The oxidised α-tocopheroxyl radicals produced in this process may be recycled back to the active reduced form through reduction by other antioxidants, such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.  Vitamin E also helps our hair and skin to rejuvenate itself more effectively. It also increases the epithelialization of the skin and hair tissues. Another known property is that it increases the supply of hydration to the skin and hair tissues.

Vitamin F

The biological effects of ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are mediated by their mutual interactions. In the body, essential fatty acids serve multiple functions. In each of these, the balance between dietary ω-3 and ω-6 strongly affects such functions.

  • They act on DNA (activating or inhibiting transcription factors such as NFκB, which is linked to pro-inflammatory cytokine production)
  • These are considered essential fatty acids (EFA) because they cannot be produced by the body. There are many fatty acids that have skin benefits, including arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and oleic acids to name a few. These all have emollient, water-binding, and often antioxidant properties for the skin.

Vitamin K

Vitamin (K from “Koagulations-Vitamin” in German and Scandinavian languages) denotes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that are needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins, mostly required for blood coagulation. Chemically they are 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives.

Vitamin K1 is also known as phylloquinone or phytomenadione (also called phytonadione). Vitamin K2 (menaquinone, menatetrenone) is normally produced by bacteria in the large intestine, and dietary deficiency is extremely rare unless the intestines are heavily damaged, are unable to absorb the molecule, or due to decreased production by normal flora, as seen in broad spectrum antibiotic use.

There are three synthetic forms of vitamin K, vitamins K3, K4 and K5, which are used in many areas including the pet food industry (vitamin K3) and to inhibit fungal growth (vitamin K5 A study published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology examined the effect of applying a gel containing 2% vitamin K plus 0.1% vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C. Fifty-seven adults with dark circles participated in the 8-week study, in which 47% of the testers noted “fair to moderate” improvement in their dark circles.

Water Lily

Water Lily extract is a soothing, skin calming botanical extract. It has a filmogenic action on skin, which promotes skin hydration. It acts by holding water, thereby maintaining optimal moisture levels in the epidermis. Water Lily extract is a soothing and calming botanical active that heals damaged and irritated tissues. It also has hydrating and emollient properties due to its polysaccharides and can be used on any skin type such as dry, irritated, sun damaged, or sensitive skin.

Wheat Germ Oil

Although the germ only constitutes 3% of the weight of a wheat grain, it contains nearly 25% of the protein, vitamins and minerals. The oil is very high in vitamin E, A, and D. It is also rich in essential fatty acids, omega 3, omega 6 and because of its high vitamin E content, wheat germ oil is a natural antioxidant. When it is applied topically onto the skin it helps promote the formation of new cells, improve circulation, and helps to repair sun damaged skin. It is also used to help relieve the symptoms of dermatitis. Wheat germ oil is also very high in vitamin E and has the highest content of vitamin E of any food that has not undergone prior preparation or vitamin fortification. This ingredient is excellent for higher metabolism in skin cells, causing the skin to heal and regenerate faster, leaving moist, supple and healthy looking skin.

Witch Hazel

Witch hazel is a skin purifier that has a high concentration of tannin. Tannin is a potent antioxidant that helps to reduce inflammation.